Markets are a crucial component of how people survive. Understanding how markets function and are disrupted in emergencies is critical to any analysis of hunger, and of food and livelihood security. The Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) techniques described in this toolkit assist frontline staff in undertaking rapid assessments of market systems in the first few weeks of a crisis. Its purpose is to improve early response planning so that resources are used effectively, and to ensure that opportunities to bolster future recovery in the local economy are not missed. This toolkit can help prevent lasting damage to the livelihoods, jobs and businesses on which people’s long-term security depends. EMMA assumes limited previous experience of economic or market analysis. Instead, the focus is on simple visual, graphical and largely qualitative ways of describing the impact of emergencies on people and on the critical market systems upon which they most rely.